instruction

Instruction sheet for patterns for weaving using Branson Looms. Courtesy of Osborne Library, American Textile History Museum.

Instruction sheet for patterns for weaving using Branson Looms. Courtesy of Osborne Library, American Textile History Museum. Three patterns for weaving. Each pattern is a set of four columns with four dots evenly spaced along the length of the column. Each column has two small, solid white dots and two larger Os. The positioning of these small white dots and larger Os indicate the pattern to be woven. Each of the three patterns appears to be labelled, but the labels are indecipherable. The upper half of the sheet contains all three patterns. The lower half of the sheet shows a drawing of a semi-automatic loom and the text “J. L. Branson Proprietor and Manufacturer No. 131 West Fifth Street Cincinnati, Ohio.”

dorset

Dorset four-shaft loom by Frank Clifton Wood.

Dorset four-shaft jack loom by Frank Clifton Wood. Fairly compact four-treadle floor loom with a moderately tall castle and X-shaped side supports. The loom is warped and has a piece of cloth in progress, with a shuttle full of weft yarn balanced on top of the cloth.

barbara_iv

Barbara IV loom designed and patented in 1979 by Thought Products.

Barbara IV loom designed and patented in 1979 by Thought Products. Countermarch loom with at least 10 treadles and numerous shafts. The overall shape is of an acute isosceles triangle with the vertex at the top. The breast beam and warp beam are on opposite ends of a hinged crossbeam that is set in a “V.” The rear support legs become the castle supports, and the beater bar is suspended from its own set of supports.

loom1

Loom #1, incomplete four-post loom in the Greene County Historical Society, Xenia, OH, from the rear.

Loom #1, incomplete four-post counterbalance loom in the Greene County Historical Society, Xenia, OH, from the rear. The loom quite dusty. It is oriented so the the warp beam is facing about 4 on a clock face. The sheds, treadles, and what appear to be large wooden pins are on the floor near the loom.

loom2

Loom #2, single rear support loom complete and warped at Green County Historical Society.

Loom #2, single rear support counterbalance loom, complete and warped, at Green County Historical Society. The loom is oriented so the the cloth beam is facing about 7:30 on a clock face. A small, four-legged weaving stool sits in position for weaving.

tailor

Thomas the tailor's loom.

Thomas the tailor’s loom; an incomplete counterbalance loom. The loom is missing all elements other than the frame, warp beam, cloth bar, beater bar (sans reed), and the pulley for a counterbalance system. The front posts are of a piece with the side panels, and have minor decorative carving on the front edge. The horizontal frame supports for the beater bar and the beater bar arms have similar simple carving.

Marquardsen

Herald Marquardsen loom.

Herald Marquardsen jack loom. The large floor loom is not warped and the beater bar does not appear to have a reed, though the loom overall is in good condition. The warp beam contains spacers for sectional warping.

tape_loom

Tape loom on a frame.

Tape loom on a frame. The rigid-heddle loom has a narrow warp. The loom is part of a square frame that resembles a stool with a square seat that has four legs supporting the seat and four legs sticking up from the seat. The upper legs create the frame for the warp beam on one side, and the rigid heddle on the other. The cloth beam extends out from the “seat” at about 2:30 on a clock face on the side of the frame with the rigid heddle.

DeenLoom1

Deen looms at the Shelby County Historical Society in Harlan, IA.

Deen looms at the Shelby County Historical Society in Harlan, IA. Four Deen semi-automatic jack looms side by side, with cloth beams oriented to about 7:30 on a clock face. None of the looms have treadles. The loom in the foreground has red side panels; the one behind it has green side panels. The other two visible looms appear to have black side panels. The red and green looms are warped and the red loom has partially woven fabric on its cloth beam.

DeenLoom2

Two styles of shuttle stuffers.

Two styles of shuttle stuffers, one with a large wheel and one with a smaller wheel. They are made of mixed wood and metal. The shuttle stuffers have a base (one with either three or five legs, and one that is more like a column) on which a wheel is oriented vertically. Slightly to the side of the large wheel, on the base, is what appears to be a funnel or holster. The shuttle stuffer in the foreground has a second, much smaller wheel attached to the frame by way of a lever arm. It appears as though the smaller wheel may rest on the rim of the larger wheel. The shuttle stuffer in the background has large wooden rod in the funnel / holster.

DeenLoom4

Deen Advance Automatic Fly Shuttle loom.

Color illustration of a Deen Advance Automatic Fly Shuttle, two-shaft jack loom. There are no visible treadles. The side panels are red and have a curved cutout area between where they connect to the cloth beam and the castle. The cloth shown on the loom is a red and green plaid on a white base.

DeenLoom5

Deen Advance Automatic Fly Shuttle loom.

Black and white illustration in an advertisement for a Deen All Weave semi-automatic jack loom. There are no treadles on the loom. The loom shown has rectangular side panels. There is a twill fabric on the cloth beam. Advertisement text:
42 inch (as illustrated) …… $[indecipherable]
4 ft. …… 110.00
5 ft. …… 115.00
6 ft. …… [indecipherable]

DeenLoom6

Deen loom to be repaired in the collection of Neal and Nellie Springer.

Deen loom to be repaired in the collection of Neal and Nellie Springer. Rectangular red side panels indicate that this is probably more like the All Weave loom than the Automatic Fly Shuttle loom. The loom appears to be in rough shape, with rusty-looking metal and wear on the red paint on the side panels.

DeenLoom7

Mechanism from Deen All Weave loom.

Mechanism from Deen All Weave loom. A long, metal beam, about 1 inch (2.5 cm) tall, four inches wide (10 cm), and several feet (at least 1.5 meters) long. The beam has a metal support coming up perpendicular to the top plane of the beam, which holds something like an interlocking, two-piece metal comb. Directly below this structure, on the 1 inch / 2.5 cm side of the beam is a plaque or label with the words “Deen All-Weave Loom
Deen Loom Company Harlan, Iowa”.

TavernLoom

Early 19th-century four-shaft four-post loom built by Ira Draper in the Golden Ball Tavern in Weston, MA.

Early 19th-century four-shaft four-post counterbalance loom built by Ira Draper in the Golden Ball Tavern in Weston, MA. Four treadles. The warp is a medium blue.

DavisLoom

Four-shaft counterbalance loom built by Ed Davis.

Four-shaft counterbalance loom built by Ed Davis. The loom is warped. Four treadles are visible. The beater bar attaches to the lower side brace.

KorosfoLoom

Painted loom from Körösfő, Hungary (now Izvoru Crișului in Romania) in A magyar nép művészete [The Art of Hungarian Folk] by Dezső Malonyay.

Painted loom from Körösfő, Hungary (now Izvoru Crișului in Romania) in A magyar nép művészete [The Art of Hungarian Folk] by Dezső Malonyay. A black and white line drawing of a decorated counterbalance loom. The legs, beams, corner posts, beater bar, and weaving stool are all decorated with Hungarian folk-art style floral patterns.

margaret_bergman

Margaret Bergman at Penland School 1939. Courtesy of Trebon Collection.

Margaret Bergman at Penland School, 1939. Bergman sits at a jack loom of her own design. She is in the process of weaving, with a shuttle in her right hand. She has her hair in a low bun and wears glasses. Photograph courtesy of Trebon Collection.

sharon_bergman_loom

Side view of a Bergman loom showing back and front open.

Side view of a Bergman jack loom showing back and front open. The loom is not warped. The front side panel includes a large piece of figured wood.

bergman_loom_folded

Bergman loom with treadles up, and the front folded

Bergman loom with treadles up, and the front folded. There are six treadles visible. The front side panels fold in towards the treadles like cabinet doors. Each panel “door” covers about 1/3 of the width of the front beam.

saunderson_overview

Saunderstown Weaving School overview of many looms.

Saunderstown Weaving School, overview of many looms in a room with several large windows. At least 8 full or partial floor looms appear in the photograph, comprising a variety of types and sizes.

gallinger_loom

8-shaft loom built for Osma Gallinger, a well-known weaving teacher, by her husband Milo Gallinger, probably in the 1940s.

8-shaft jack loom built for Osma Gallinger, a well-known weaving teacher, by her husband Milo Gallinger, probably in the 1940s.

bailey_loom

Bailey loom was manufactured in Lodi, OH. called the "rehabilitation loom" for use in physical therapy.

The Bailey loom was manufactured in Lodi, OH. This jack loom is called the “rehabilitation loom” and was developed for use in physical therapy.

chelmsford_loom1

The loom at the Old Chelmsford Garrison House ready to assemble after cleaning.

The counterbalance loom at the Old Chelmsford Garrison House ready to assemble after cleaning. Many loom parts lean up against a white-painted wooden wall.

chelmsford_loom3

Heddle construction required "knit heddles." The process involves knots and loops. It's done in two steps: first one side, and then the heddle eye, and then the other side.

Heddle construction on the Chelmsford loom required “knit heddles.” The process involves knots and loops. It’s done in two steps: first one side, and then the heddle eye, and then the other side.

khmer_loom1

Khmer loom diagram, courtesy of Fukuoka Art Museum.

Khmer loom diagram, courtesy of Fukuoka Art Museum. A long, narrow counterbalance floor loom. It has three shafts and three treadles visible and is fairly low to the ground. The spaces between the legs, braces, and beams are all open.

khmer_loom2

Traditional reel for silk used by Khmer weavers.

Traditional reel for silk used by Khmer weavers. The reel as a whole is black lacquered wood with red accents and includes a base, a support for the reel axel, and a reel. The reel support is a carved figure. The reel itself has 8 rods that run parallel to the axel, creating a barrel shape. There is no visible crank-mechanism to turn the reel.

khmer_loom5

View of Khmer loom from weaver’s bench. Note the three treadles are parallel to the weaver’s bench.

View of Khmer loom from weaver’s bench. Woven red cloth in the foreground, the beater bar with the shafts hanging behind it. Of note, the three treadles are parallel to the weaver’s bench.

weaversbarn

Weavers' Barn at the Antique Gas and Steam Engine Museum in Vista, CA, showing rows of handweaving looms.

Weavers’ Barn at the Antique Gas and Steam Engine Museum in Vista, CA, showing rows of handweaving looms. There are four rows of looms spanning the width and length of the room. There are over two dozen looms shown.

calif_loom3

Small 15" Burnham floor loom with 4 shafts and 4 treadles.

Small 15″ Burnham direct tie-up jack floor loom with 4 shafts and 4 treadles.

calif_loom4

Walling 45" floor loom with 8 shafts and 10 treadles with "cam-action" the "Loom Harness Lifting Apparatus" patented by Bill Walling in 1960.

Walling 45″ floor loom with 8 shafts and 10 treadles. Jack loom with a “cam-action” type of “Loom Harness Lifting Apparatus” patented by Bill Walling in 1960.

calif_loom6

Binder large floor loom with 8 shafts and 10 treadles "Binder Precision Action" loom.

“Binder Precision Action” loom. Large jack loom with 8 shafts and 10 treadles

chelmsford_loom1

Beaming the warp on the loom in the Old Garrison House in Chelmsford, MA.

Beaming the warp on the counterbalance floor loom in the Old Garrison House in Chelmsford, MA.

chelmsford_loom3

Marks on the ends of the old reeds that came with the loom in the Old Garrison House, marks appear to be Roman numerals.

Old reeds that came with the loom in the Old Garrison House. There are marks carved into the ends of the reeds that appear to be non-standard Roman numerals, including “X”es , “I”s and bars crossing multiple “I”s.